modulation: changing from one key to another
libretto: A libretto is the text used in, or intended for, an extended musical work such as an opera, operetta, masque, oratorio, cantata or musical.
chorus: chorus contains the main idea, or big picture, of what is being expressed lyrically and musically. Theme and variation: involves idea of contrast, theme is presented and played several times where it is varied in melody ,rhythm, dynamics, tempo, or harmony. The theme is recognizably changed and yet recognizably the same. meter: the recurring pattern of stresses or accents that provide the pulse or beat texture: the way different music sounds are combined absolute music: Music that has no meaning outside the meaning of the music itself and the feelings it produces in its listeners Program music: Music that tells some kind of story


Plainchant (plainsong):

earliest polyphony was organum (12th-13th centuries). Initially, voices added above and below in parallel. Independent movement was an important development.

Kyrie (plainchant)


Secular Song and Polyphony:

Peritonus Alleluya, Nativitas (Magister Leonin)

Two composers created first great collection of compositions Magnus Liber and Organi

Fundamentals of Medieval Music:

Renaissance Era:

Three major changes:

A cappella - no instrumental accompaniment

liturgical music: for the masses
motets: songs that have religious texts but are not part of the actual services
secular: nonreligious songs

motet: four voice parts, small choir rather than soloists
word painting: echoing the meaning of words in music

Chansons (France), madrigals (Italy - England): 3 or 4 voices, mostly courtly love songs

Dance music (see note pp. 113): there was always dance music but once again, publishing served a growing market.

Instrumental forms -> earliest published instrumental music. Wide variety - pavanes, allemandes, bourees, gigues, rondes, courantes, galliardes, sicilianos, salterellos, etc.



Vocal forms:

doctrine of affections (affektenlehre). . . in Baroque terms, music not only ought to arouse emotions - it actually makes the listener experience certain emotions.


Instrumental Forms:

basso continuo: strong bass line in Baroque music.

dance suite, not for dancing independent genre:
allemande: duple, moderate tempo, continuous motion
courante: triple. moderate to fast, motion often in running scales
sarabande: triple, slow, stately, accent often on second beat
gigue: usually 6/8, fst, lively, often imitatitve

Cantata (sacred and secular)

Work for vocalists w\instrumental acc. (choruses added later), poetic text
Italian cantata: 3 genres: lyric, dramatic, narrative


Passion plays (depiction of the last days and Crucifixion of Christ) - earliest known form of European theatre. Not surprising that music is incorporated early on.


note that “sonata” is a confusing term that shifts its meaning over time.
several movements or sections of contrasting nature (not essentially different from a suite)
chamber sonata (da camera): dance origin
church sonata (de chiessa): more serious, polyphonic
small # of instruments (1-8)

note later, slightly different, classical sense
Contrast - two groups
either solo concerto or concerto grosso (concertino-small grp, ripieno or tutti (“all”)-large group)

ritornello: contrast between the solo instruments and the orchestra
reformation: church music:
chorale: hymm with steady rhythm and simple tune usually sung in unison by the whole congregation
oratoria: large-scale work like an opera but is a sacred story not staged. (similar to Passion)


2 wives, at least 19 children. . . 4 became composers of note (Johann Christoph, Johann Christian, Carl Philipp Emanuel, Wilhelm Friedemann).

prelude: rambling, improvisatory piece that organists play to fill in before, during, and after church service.
fugue: carefully worked out polyphonic composition that uses a theme that occurs in all voices of musical lines

Music Offering: two fugues, ten canons and a trio sonata by Bach. Shows skill at counterpoint.

fundamentals of baroque:

Classical Period (1750-1800/(25?))

The Enlightenment: late 18th - early 19th century (Age of Reason)

characteristics of Classical Era:

Genres of Classical Music:

comic opera: simpler music, down-to-earth characters, and amusing plots

overture: instrumental introduction in three short movements: fast-slow-fast (sinfonia)

Chamber Music:
duets, trios, quintets, for various instrumental combinations
string quartet: four stringed instruments (two violins, a viola, a cello)

Alberti Bass: continuously moving pattern of short notes

Forms of Classical Music:

Four-Movement Structure:
1: Sonata, Tonic
2: Aria or Sonata or Theme and Variations, Dominant, Subdominant, or relative minor
3: minuet-and-trio, tonic (trio is sometimes in a different key)
4: rondo or sonata, tonic