Table of Contents

  1. Up to Chapter 4 Notes
  2. Up to Chapter 5 Notes

Up to Chapter 4 Notes

October 16, 2016

Glossary of Terms

Subject: Who or what a setence is about. (Biologists often study animals.)
Verb: The part of a setence that asserts something about a subject.(Biologists often study animals.) Noun: A word that names a person, thing, quality, place, or idea.
Helping Verb: A verb used with another verb to convey time, obligation, or other meaning. (was drilling, would have been drilling)
Passive Voice: The verb form used when the subject names the receiver of the verb’s action. (The house was destroyed by the tornado.) Active Voice: The verb form used when the subject names the performer of the verb’s action. (The tornado destroyed the house.) Main Clause: A word group that can stand alone as a sentence, containing a subject, and a verb not beginning with a subordinating word. (The books were expensive)
Modifier: A word or word group that describes another word or word group (sweet candy, running in the park)
Coordinating Conjunctions: And, but, or, nor, and sometimes for, so , yet.
Conjunctive Adverbs: Modifiers that describe the relation of the ideas in two cleauses such as hence, however, indeed, and thus.
Subordinate Clause: A word group that contains a subject and a verb beginning with a subordinating word such as because or who and is not a question. (Words can do damage when they hurt feelings.)
Phrase: A word group that lacks a subject or verb or both. (Words can do damage by hurting feelings.)
Correlative Conjunctions: Pairs of words that connect elements of the same kind and importance, such as both… and, either… or, neither… nor, not…but, not only… but also.
Adverb: A word or word group that describes a verb or an adjective, another adverb, or a whole sentence. (dressed sharply, clearly unhappy, soaring from the mountain)
Adjective: A word or word group that describes a noun or pronoun. (sweet smile, certain someone)

Chapter 3


Subjects and verbs are underlined.
The intention of the company was to expand its workforce. A proposal was also made to diversify the backgrounds and abilities of employees.

The company intended to expand its workforce. It also proposed to diversify the backgrounds and abilities of employees.

Unemphatic Emphatic
was influential influenced
is a glorification glorifies
have a preference prefer
had the appearance appeared, seemed
made a claim claimed

Using Sentence Beginnings and Endings

Cumulative: Sentence begins with a main clause and adds modifiers.

ex. Education has no equal in opening minds, instilling values, and creating opportunities

Periodic: Saves the main clause until just before the end of the sentence.

ex. In opening minds, instilling values, and creating opportunities, education has no equal.

Subordination: Indicate that some elements in a sentence are less important others for your meaning.


Similarity of grammatical form elements of meaning with a sentence or among sentences.

Variety and Details

Adverb modifiers: (ex. For a week, he relentlessly cross-examined the witness, modifies cross-examined)
Adjective modifiers: (ex. The witness had been expecting to be dismissed within an hour, modifies witness)
Transitional expressions: (such as indeed)

Appropriate and Exact Words

  • dialect and nonstandard language
  • slang (common experiences to make technical references efficient)
  • colloquial language (everyday language)
  • technical words
  • indirect and pretentious writing
  • sexist and other biased language

Choosing the Right Words

Abstract words: name, qualities, and ideas
Concrete words: name things we can know by our five senses
General words: name classes or group of things
Specific words: limit a general class
Idioms: expressions in language

Chapter 4

Parts of Speech

Common nouns: name general classes of things that do no begin with capital letters.
Proper nouns: name specific people.
Count nouns: name things considered countable in English. Most add -s or -es.
Noncount nouns: name things that aren’t considered countable. Collective nouns: are singular in form but name groups.

Personal pronouns: refer to a specific individual or to individuals (I, you, he she, we)
Indefinite pronouns: everybody or some, function as nouns.
Relative Pronouns: who, whoever, which, that, relate groups of words to nouns
Interrogative pronouns: who, which, and what (introduce questions)
Demonstrative pronouns: this, that, and such (identify or point to nouns)
Intensive pronouns: a persona pronoun plus -self or -selves (himself, ourselves)
Reflexive pronouns: have the same form as intensive pronouns but indicate that the sentence subject also receives the action of the verb (They injured themselves)

Forms of Verbs

pg. 154

plain form: dictionary form of the verb.
-s form: ends in -s or -es.
past-tense: action occured before. (usually has -d or -ed)
past participle: past tense for irregular verbs (combines have or be to has climbed, was created)
present participle: adds -ing to plain form (is buying), modifies nouns and pronouns (boiling water) or functions as a noun (running exhausts me)

Helping verbs:

  • was sleeping, had been working


  • form nouns or pronouns (about love, down the stairs)

Subordinating Conjunctions:

  • form sentences into word groups called subordinate clauses(when the meeting ended)


  • simple subject: one or more nouns
  • complete subject: includes any modifiers
  • simple predicate: one or more verbs
  • complete predicate: add any words to complete the meaning plus modifiers

Intransitive verb: does not require a following word to complete meaning. (The earth trembled)

Transitive verb: requires a direct object to complete the meaning. (The city was destroyed)

Subject complement: renames or describes subject (The result was chaos) Linking verb: links subject to description (The result was chaos)

indirect object: word identifying action of the verb (The government sent the city aid)

object complement: verb followed by direct object and an object complement The citizens considered the earthquake a disaster

Phrases and Subordinate Clauses

prepositional phrase: consists of a preposition plus a noun (of, on, with, upon, from)
verbal phrase: modifiers or nouns (the sun rising over the dump)
participle phrases: present participles (ending in -ing) or past participles (usually ending in -d or -ed)
gerund: -ing fomr of a verb that acts as a noun.
infinitive: verb plus to
absolute phrases: noun or pronoun and a participle plus modifiers (their own place established many ethnic groups are making way for new arrivals) appositive phrases: noun that renames another noun. (Bizen ware, a dark stoneware, is produced in Japan.)
adjective clause: modifies a noun or pronoun (parents who are illiterate may have bad memories of school)
adverb clause: modifies a verb, an adjective, another adverb, word group (The school began teaching parents)

Sentence Types

simple: single main clause no subordinate clause. (last summer was unsuaully hot)
compound: two or more clauses and no subordinate clause. (Last July was hot, but August was even hotter)
complex: one main clause and one or more subordinate clause. (Rain finally came, although many had left the area by then)
compound-complex: two or more clauses and at least one subordinate clause


regular: if the past and present is -d or -ed to the plain form irregular: not regular

tense: shows the time of a verb’s action


  • indicative: states a fact or asks a question (the theatre needs help)
  • imperative mood: expresses a command or digives a direction (Help the theatre)
  • subjunctive mood: expresses a suggestion, requirement (I wish I were)


  • subjective: subject or subject complement
  • objective case: word is an object of a verb or preposition
  • possessive caseL words owns or is the source of a noun

Up to Chapter 5 Notes

October 31, 2016

Chapter 5 (Punctuation)

  • period after most sentences

Indirect question: someone asked but not in the exact form of the original question. (ex. “The judge asked why I had been driving with my lights off.”)

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